When the subject is Buddhism, “enlightenment” means a spiritual awakening. But the Western Enlightenment has been political and social. It’s about reason, the rights of the individual citizen, and a scientific understanding of the material plane. Because the Enlightenment’s ideas were derived from the speculations of a number of individualContinue Reading

As the Roman Empire collapsed, disorder increased. Civilization requires order, and Europeans were well past the point where they could live simply. So, a new order came into being, an alliance between the Roman Catholic Church and powerful aristocrats—royalty. At this point, the only relationship Christianity had with Christ wasContinue Reading